LONDON ARCHAEOLOGIST 1991 vol 6.14

EXCAVATIONS ARE listed alphabetically. They are followed by the grid reference, the name of the director(s) of the excavation, and the site code. All entries are from the (then) Department of Urban Archaeology of the Museum of London.

1 Amen Court TQ 3185 8122 ( Sarah Gibson, David Lakin, Andrew Westman) MEN91.

Limited recording took place from August to October 1991 during refurbishment of a standing building, listed as being of architectural and historic interest. The work was funded by the Dean and Chapter of St Paul's Cathedral. Pitfills and garden soil were cut by mortared chalk foundations, at cellar level. These foundations were truncated by the existing building, the furthest to the E in a terrace of three houses documented as having been constructed in the 1670s for canons residentiary of St Paul's. This house formed a brick shell with timber framed floors and roof and some timber framed internal walls. There was evidence of later rearrangement of a service staircase beside a central lightwell, rebuilding of cellars under the street, and the addition of the uppermost floor, or perhaps merely its enlargement. Minor internal alterations included refacing a wall with timber panelling, covering up 18th c wallpaper which depicted a pastoral scene.

Baynard's Castle, near Pauls Walk TQ 3193 8083 (Sarah Gibson, Drew Shotliff) BEX90.
Insertion of drain runs and manholes on the site of the SE corner of Baynard's Castle, a scheduled ancient monument, uncovered only post-medieval backfill and make-up, leaving the fabric of the monument undisturbed (see LA 5 no. 3 (1985) 63; 4 no. 6 (1982) 160; 2 no. 10 (1975) 256). The watching brief took place by arrangement with the Corporation of London.

Bishopsgate, pedestrian subway near Liverpool Street Station (W) TQ 3327 8159 (E) TQ 3329 8158 (Dick Bluer) BSY91.
A watching brief during excavations for a subway running E-W under Bishopsgate in August and in November-December 1991, was funded by the Corporation of London.
Natural gravels and brickearth were quarried early in the Roman period, to the E, well away from the presumed line of a known N-S Roman road, Ermine Street, beyond the site to the W. No trace of this road was seen, but a cremation was excavated, contained within an Alice Holt Surrey ware jar, indicating the known roadside cemetery. To the W a well shaft was located, backfilled possibly in the 2nd c. To the E dumps of medieval roof tiles were sealed by gravel metalling, confirming the medieval realignment of Ermine Street (on a line followed by the modern road, or perhaps a little to the E of it). Rubbish pits and a well of medieval date, post-medieval cellars and the existing road and services completed the sequence. A notable find of Roman date is a copper alloy horse fitting.

6 Broad St Place TQ 3299 8166 (Sarah Gibson, Julian Hill) BSP91.
An excavation and watching brief funded by Norwich Union Pensions took place in July 1991 during contractors' ground works, after the contractors had discovered evidence of ancient burials. One complete burial was recorded and further evidence was found for others, all probably part of a Roman cemetery known to have existed in the area.

Bull Wharf Lane, 67 Upper Thames St TQ 3234 8083 (Julian Ayre) UPT90.
Excavations were conducted after demolition from January to May 1991 in the first phase of an intended large waterfront redevelopment at Queenhithe. Work was funded by Beaver House.
On the N side of the site a foreshore was found on which was constructed a timber quay running W-E. Dated by dendrochronology to the early 3rd c and identified as the Late Roman Quay, this comprised very large squared oak timbers laid in horizontal courses, all but the lowest course of which had been subsequently removed or displaced. The remaining course was sealed by naturally deposited river silts, c 1m (3f t) thick, overlain in turn by foreshore gravels.
To the W a woman's body encased in bark. reeds and moss was laid out on these gravels. This burial, comparable to certain Viking burials in Scandinavia, was removed en bloc for micro excavation off site. Stakes and withies were then laid out on the foreshore forming fences and groynes. Attempts were made to stabilise the waterfront and reclaim land by mounding up the ground behind low revetments composed of reused fragments of boat and building timbers, held in place by stakes, but these materials were partly washed away or dismantled. Further revetments were then built more extensively and successfully, reusing large timbers from the Late Roman Quay laid as footings. One revetment, running to the E, incorporated bundled brushwood and wattle, and was later repaired. The other, running to the W, included timbers and large cobbles, and was later replaced entirely. Part of the latter revetment included a reused timber panel with a small triangular window opening.
To the N, behind these revetments and in association with them, was a complex sequence of buildings and occupation surfaces, dated by dendrochronology to the 10th and 11th c. The first, wattle-built structures, to the E, were not aligned with the waterfront, but all subsequent buildings were. They ran N in three distinct blocks, presumably respecting property boundaries. These buildings were constructed using large timber posts set on rough rubble foundation platforms, or with large earthfast posts and substantial sill beams. Evidence was found of a joisted timber floor in one of the buildings to the E. Most floors were of beaten earth or clay, incorporating occupational debris such as wood shavings, and there were numerous shallow hearths, especially a series in the central block. Food debris and other organic remains were well preserved in and around these buildings. To the W successive floors and make-up layers provided the main structural evidence, situated at first only to the N with gravel surfaces to the S. Later these surfaces formed an alley between buildings to N and S, and later still were entirely built over. Along the W side of the site successive structural divisions (observed during installation of a temporary retaining wall) indicated a frontage on the line of modern Bull Wharf Lane. Many elements of these timber buildings were well preserved: oak thresholds and ash door posts flanked outside by bushes or small trees, internal roof supports and partition walls, buttress timbers for external walls, a variety of jointing and reused timbers such as barrel heads and staves.
This sequence of buildings was sealed by natural silts, probably a flood deposit. To the S, in front of the existing revetments, a raft of rough timbers indicated continuing reclamation. The waterfront to which this related lay further to the S, beyond the site, where it had been destroyed during redevelopment of Bull Wharf in 1979 (LA 3 no. 14 (1980) 385) and was continuous with that recorded directly to the E, at Vintners' Place (see below). Only later intrusive features survived eventual horizontal truncation. Foundations of chalk rubble and mortared chalk dated to the 12th c were inserted running N, respecting the previous three principal property lines. Other features included a stone-lined tanning pit and post-medieval brick-lined wells, a cistern, cellars, drains and cesspits, some bearing signs of burning, perhaps in the Great Fire of 1666.
The revetment dumps produced an impressive collection of Saxon leather turnshoes with thonged-on soles. Several are nearly complete and many show evidence of repair.

64-6 Cheapside TQ 3244 8114 (Tony Thomas) CED89.
Excavations funded by Sun Alliance Property Construction Ltd took place after-demolition from April to June 1991 in the S half of the site, concurrently with contractor's ground works. Sections exposed in underpinning holes and by deeper ground works were recorded in a watching brief which continued until September 1991.
Alluvial silts overlying natural sands and gravels marked a tributary of the Walbrook flowing SE. To the W, at least, this ground was consolidated with timber piles and brickearth dumps, probably in the 1st c, in advance of construction. To the W Roman buildings partly survived severe later truncation and presumably fronted onto a street to the N, the Roman precursor of Cheapside. The S edge of this street was located running WE, with a roadside ditch. To the SE buildings were traced on either side of a narrow alley aligned to the street. These buildings had foundations of mortared ragstone, brick and tile, brickearth floors or floor make-ups, a tiled hearth and internal walls faced with painted plaster and with a quarter-round moulding at the base. To the SW two adjacent rooms of a different building were floored with opus signinum, divided by a timber partition wall.
These buildings burned down, probably early in the 2nd c, and a thick dump of burnt building debris covered the site, cut in turn by post holes or possibly tree holes. The latter were eventually infilled with 'dark earth', which also sealed the road surface to the N. Formation of 'dark earth' was apparently interrupted by a phase of pitting.
All later features were intrusive. Mortared chalk and gravel foundations on timber piles marked a medieval strip building running N, fronting onto Cheapside. There were at least two cellars in this building and the lowest courses of a cellar wall survived, with a mortared rubble core faced in ragstone. To the S a later building with differently mortared ragstone and chalk foundations ran SW, probably fronting onto Bow Lane. This had cellars with walls faced in squared chalk, a tiled floor and a corner hearth. These cellars were subdivided and extended before eventually being backfilled with rubbish or used as cesspits. One of the latter yielded well preserved plant and animal remains. Some medieval foundations were incorporated in later buildings but brick foundations on a different plan indicated a separate building, probably post-Great Fire. A single basement to the S and double basement in the N half of the site completed the sequence.

72-5 Cheapside, 83-93 Queen St, 12 Pancras Lane TQ 3249 8113 (Julian Hill, Aidan Woodger) CID90.
Excavations were carried out after demolition between July and December 1991, followed by a watching brief. The work was sponsored by Wates (City) Ltd.
Natural gravels capped by brickearth sloped gently down to the S. Although the subsoil was quite wet there was no sign of the stream which had been expected, flowing SE to join the Walbrook. The first activity recorded was construction of a Roman road, c 9m (29ft) wide, the known Roman precursor of Cheapside crossing the site from W to E. A pit, cutting into the brickearth make-up for this road and sealed by the earliest metalling of rammed gravel, contained part of a bone sword grip. To the S of the road and running parallel to it a V-shaped ditch was dug with an 'ankle breaker' profile at its base. Also to the S, brickearth was quarried, a circular wattle structure was built c 4m (13ft) in diameter; organic refuse, including wood working debris, was dumped extensively. N of the road a timber-lined cesspit was dug.
Clay-and-timber buildings were then constructed along both sides of the road. Within a relatively short time all were burned in what is identified tentatively as the Boudiccan fire of AD 60-1. In the burnt debris to the S were large quantities of charred grain: barley and both spelt and emmer wheat. The relatively clean appearance of this grain and the inclusion of several fragments of stone querns suggest the presence of a mill. After levelling of the debris these buildings were replaced, probably quickly as the debris was unweathered. A succession of similar clay-and-timber buildings, respecting the same property lines, continued into the 3rd c.
There was virtually no deposit of 'dark earth' and when the site was next definitely occupied, in the 10th c, the latest Roman metalled road surface was still at ground level. To the S and N of the road, respectively, two successive buildings and a single building were constructed using the former road surface in between as perhaps a yard or alleyway. The later building to the S and that to the N had sunken floors and their walls surviving below ground level comprised earth-fast posts retaining planks on edge. These buildings measured c 4m by 3m (13f t by 10ft) and c 2m by 4m(6.5ft by 13f t) respectively. Midden deposits containing large amounts of iron slag, indicating smelting and perhaps smithing, accumulated thickly on the floor of the S building. This was then refloored using barrel fragments. After dumping and levelling up, pits were dug to the S and a chalk-lined cellar was inserted to the N, dated to the 11th-12th c. A yard to the S of the cellar was cut by several rubbish pit sand wattle-lined cesspits. These cesspits contained large quantities of plum, sloe and cherry stones, grape pips and cereal bran, giving a good picture of local diet. In the S of the site, 11th c pits preceded the insertion of beechwood foundation piles with a felling date of c 1090.
By the 14th c, a large chalk-lined cesspit was built in a corner of the yard and the cellar became disused. The absence of intrusions further to the N indicates the presence there of medieval buildings, presumably fronting onto Cheapside, running along the N side of the site. The only post-medieval features were a brick lined pit and recent basements, suggesting considerable late medieval or post-medieval levelling up of the ground, or a change of use of the site.
Site conditions ensured very good survival of a large quantity of Roman metalwork. Several fine, complete copper alloy brooches were recovered amongst which is a British Aesica type, the first example to be found in London. Another enamelled brooch would have had a manicure set suspended from it. Other enamelled objects include seal boxes and studs. Two copper alloy phalli were found that may originally have been mounted on leather, while a third example is probably from a figurine. Other Roman finds of note include part of a ceramic figurine depicting a mother goddess suckling a child, lamps bearing theatrical masks and a Cupid, and a bone die shaped so that, when cast, it favours 6 and 1.
Saxon and medieval finds include several lead brooches, one of which is similar to examples in the Cheapside hoard of 11th c pewter jewellery, a bone trial piece and a leather whip with a wooden handle. The infill of the chalk-lined cesspit included a lead ampulla depicting St Thomas Becket, the first to be excavated in London away from the Thames waterfront.

2-4 Gough Square TQ 31831287 (Richard Sermon, Sarah Gibson) GOG90.
Ground works during refurbishment were monitored in an intermittent watching brief in 1990 and 1991, sponsored by Provident Mutual. Only the bases of post-medieval rubbish pits cut into natural gravels had survived severe horizontal truncation.

15-16 Gracechurch St, 54 Lombard St TQ3298 8102 Sarah Gibson) LOA90.
An evaluation funded by Fleetway Construction was conducted in April and May 1991. Most of the site was totally truncated by triple basements but parts of the Roman forum and basilica, a scheduled ancient monument, survived to the NE. Masonry foundations of the W wall and portico of the 1st c forum basilica were recorded, running further to the N than could be recorded in the 1930s and 50s. The remains of the portico are to be retained in situ in the new development. All associated horizontal strata had been truncated, but intrusive early medieval rubbish pits and a medieval chalk-lined cesspit survived.
The backfill of the cesspit, dated to the 16thc, included remains of insects such as grain weevils, as well as species that would have lived in the cess deposits, and remains of grape, fig, cereals and pepper. These indicate an enclosed pit with few external contaminants, and suggest a rich, high status diet. Finds include a medieval bone skate and a complete post-medieval copper alloy candlestick.

104-6 Leadenhall St TQ 3329 8115 (Kieron Heard) DEN9I.
Excavations took place after-demolition from June to August 1991, funded by Refuge Assurance PLC.
Natural brickearth overlying gravel survived mostly in the S half of the site, where the earliest signs of human activity were shallow scoops and layers containing burned and worked flint and Bronze Age pottery. Roman pits, a timber-lined well and possible emptied beam slots contained a mixture of rubbish and building debris, deriving probably from later Roman buildings not otherwise represented. In the N half of the site large medieval rubbish pits and cesspits truncated all pre-existing strata. Several post-medieval brick-lined pits were inserted, and one stone-lined cellar or cesspit was backfilled with many elderberry seeds and bovine metapodials.
Notable finds include a Roman copper alloy phallic mount of a type otherwise unknown in London, a complete face jug of Raeren/Aachen stoneware of early 16th c date and two very rare examples of late medieval/early post-medieval decorated ridge tiles.

Docklands Light Railway works in Lothbury, near Moorgate TQ 3266 8126 (Peter Rowsome) LHY88.
Excavations took place in May-July 1991 as part of surface works for the Docklands Light Railway extension to Bank, immediately to the W of the site of excavations conducted in 1988 (LA 6 no. 6 (1990) 164). The work was funded by Olympia and York and facilitated by DLR Ltd.
The original ground surface overlying natural sands and gravels was truncated or terraced. Late 1st c pits were followed by evidence for a timber framed building of early 2nd c date. This was superseded in the mid 2nd c by a large building constructed in mortared ragstone and tile, which included a hypocausted room, partly excavated in 1988, measuring c 5m (16f t) square. This hypocaust was H-shaped in plan, the main central channel running from a furnace in an adjoining room to the W. Branch channels led N and S to box flue tiles set in the walls. An isolated box flue in the S wall, unused and not continuing above the level of the tessellated floor, suggests that the heating system was rearranged during construction.
In the late 3rd c this hypocaust was infilled and replaced by another with pilae supporting a new tessellated floor at a higher level. The furnace to the W was relocated, presumably to the N or E, and the room to the W was then connected to the new heating system by underfloor flues piercing the dividing masonry wall. With further modifications the building survived into the 4th c. The absence of much debris in its ruins suggests that the superstructure was deliberately dismantled before accumulation of 'dark earth'. The sequence was truncated in the 19th c by the construction of public lavatories under the street.
Roman objects of note include fragments of a shale bowl with unusual rouletted decoration on its interior and a beaker and bowl made from high quality glass with wheel-cut designs.

Tunnels in Old Broad St & Threadneedle St (N) TQ3294 8129, (W) TQ 3289 8120, (E) TQ 3306 8124 (David Sankey, Andrew Westman) SOB90.
A watching brief funded by British Telecom was carried out between October 1990 and May 1991 during contractors' excavation of five tunnels and four access shafts, the tunnels running under the whole length of Old Broad St and the E half of Threadneedle St.
The position of two Roman streets was determined, running at right angles to each other and aligned to the later, larger forum and basilica to the S. Masonry foundations, floors, and middenfilled backyards of Roman buildings were located, generally overlain by 'dark earth'. This in turn was cut by intrusive medieval and post-medieval foundations, cellars or sewers. One cellar yielded three complete glass olive oil bottles of 19th c date. Two of these are chianti-like Florentine bottles while the other is a more unusual type.

90-4 Old Broad St TQ 3306 3149 (Lis Dyson) BRO90.
Excavations were carried out after demolition from March to May 1991, funded by the Corporation of London. The site straddled the line of the city defences, a scheduled ancient monument.
The earliest feature cutting natural sands and gravels was a V shaped ditch, only the base of which, including an 'ankle breaker' profile, survived severe later truncation. This ditch lay in front and c 6m (19.5ft) to the N of the line of the wall of the late 1st early 2nd c Roman defences. Nothing of the wall survived on this site but the line was projected from a surviving segment to the W, at the church of All Hallows-on-the-Wall (LA 5 no. 10 (1987) 272-3). This ditch, the backfill of which contained disarticulated skeletons, was the first of six successive ditches or their recuttings presumably associated with the defences. The second ditch may have been late Roman or early medieval in origin, its backfill containing a medieval bone skate, and the third is dated to the late 13th c. The fourth ditch. c 13m (42ft) wide, was cut at the beginning of the 16th c. This silted up and was recut after 1630. The latter was systematically backfilled in the mid 17th c, marking an end to the defences.
Later features included a horncore-lined drainage ditch, rubbish pits and chalk or mortar foundations of 17th c date, and 18th c brick-lined wells. A medieval cemetery in the S half of the site associated with All Hallows-on-the-Wall was extended after the documented post-medieval dismantling of the city wall, but no definite evidence for this cemetery survived except possibly for a single isolated 20th c reinterment.
The 17th c ditch backfill contained large quantities of glass vessel fragments and glass-working debris, possibly from Mansell's glassworks at Austin Friars, to the S. Large quantities of 17th c pottery were recovered from the contemporary ditch backfill. Much is in good condition with many complete profiles. Post-medieval redwares and Border wares are the predominant fabric types. A wide range of imports includes Werra and Weser wares, Rhenish stonewares and some Dutch vessels.

119-120 Old Broad St TQ 3296 8132 (Sarah Gibson, Nicholas Elsden) OBS91.
A watching brief was conducted in September and October 1991 funded by Midland Bank PLC. All features were truncated except the bases of medieval and post-medieval rubbish pits intruding into natural gravels.

Colchester House, Pepys St TQ 3352 8084 (Angus Stephenson, David Sankey) PEP89.
Evaluations took place in 1989 and 1990, sponsored by Arundell House (City). Surviving deposits indicated medieval pitting, dumps, chalk-built structures and post-medieval dumping.

Church of St Mary at Hill TQ3307 8076 (Bruce Watson), HBMC (Richard Lea) SMY88.
Restoration of the standing building, after it was gutted by f ire in 1988, has been combined with archaeological recording (L4 6 no. 6 (1990) 166). Limited excavations were undertaken by the Museum of London within the church, in advance of reinforcement and reflooring, from December 1990 to May 1991 Work was funded by the Parochial Church Council.
Cutting into natural brickearth and sandy gravels was a linear feature containing Late Bronze-Early Iron Age post-Deverel- Rimbury pottery, sealed by a soil horizon. Roman activity consisted of a NS gully superseded by traces of buildings.
The church is first documented in 1177. Within the present building three chalk-lined burials were found, perhaps relating to an early phase of the church. These were cut by masonry foundations of pier bases for the S arcade of the medieval nave. Other foundations were located, perhaps representing the N wall of the late medieval church and predating the addition of a N aisle, documented in 1487-1504 Two stone-built burial vaults were detected at the E end of the nave and S aisle. Sir Christopher Wren rebuilt the church in 1670-6, realigning the E wall but retaining much of the existing N and S walls. Four columns were placed on the line of previous foundations, dividing the church into three aisles. Six brick burial vaults were built to the E at about this time. A large brick vault to the W probably dates from the rebuilding of the W tower by George Gwilt in 1787-8.
Refurbishment in 1984 led to the discovery of two 16th c windows in the N wall (LA 5 no. 2 (1985) 50). In 1990-1 further examination of the upstanding fabric by HBMC found evidence for at least two more such windows, further to the E. Also revealed behind later panelling were opposed external doors in the N and S walls, subsequently blocked, another door in the S wall preceding the existing vestry door, and an early 16th c tomb monument. In Wren's E wall evidence was found for the original form of the roof and windows.

Tower of London, near Tower Pier TQ 3344 8050 (Sarah Gibson, Stuart Gibson) WOL9I.
Removal of the barrel of a 17th c cannon from post-medieval road make-ups, into which it had been inserted as a bollard on the Thames riverfront, was monitored in May 1991 This work was funded by the Royal Armouries.

St James Garlickhithe, Upper Thames St TQ 3238 8085 (Dick Malt) JAS91.
In September 1991 a tower crane on a building site at Vintry Place, to the S of this church, collapsed: the back jib of the crane fell onto the church, damaging part of the roof and the interior, and the concrete counter-weight on the jib penetrated strata underlying the church floor to a depth of more than 1m (3ft). These strata were examined and appeared to be modern make-up dumps. An extensive photographic record was made of the damage to the building.

Vintners Place, 68 Upper Thames St TQ 3236 8076 (Dick Malt, Robin Brown, Duncan Lees) VHA89, VRY89.
Excavations and an extensive watching brief on a large Thameside redevelopment, undertaken in three phases since 1989, were completed in June 1991 (see LA 6 no. 6 (1990) 167,6 no. 10 (1991) 277- 8). Work was conducted by arrangement with Wates (City) Ltd.
The latest excavations took place at the N end of the site concurrently with watching brief recording of sections to the S. These sections were progressively exposed as contractors machined away deposits between concrete columns that had previously been inserted into the deposits.
The earliest features, to the N, were continuous with those at Bull Wharf, directly to the W of the site (see above). The 3rd c Roman timber quay was located for a distance of c30m (100ft) along the N side of the site. The horizontal beams were of different sizes and, once in place on foundation piles, had been faced with an adze, suggesting some degree of fabrication in situ. The structure was dismantled down to its massive baseplates and these were overlaid with thick deposits of clay and silt, indicating abandonment of the foreshore.
Activity resumed in the late Saxon period with construction on the intertidal foreshore of a series of ephemeral wooden post and wattle structures of uncertain function. Timber revetments were then constructed forming a waterfront to the S, with associated timber-framed buildings on the reclaimed land to the N, dated by dendrochronology to the late 10th-late 11th c. This waterfront developed by extensions outward S into the river within apparent property lines, creating piers and jetties that would have served as docks, a development interrupted several times by flood deposits. No more such floods occurred after the waterfront was consolidated by means of a stave revetment housed in a grooved baseplate, dated to the early 12th c. At least four further phases of renewal and reclamation, evidenced by timber revetments and associated landfill dumping, ensued from the mid 12th c to the 14th c. One of these revetments survived up to c 3.5m (11ft) high, with front-bracing and tie-back timbers, and pegged plank cladding. Other timber structures recorded in association with these waterfronts included two substantial drains into the river, two box-shaped sumps or cesspits, one of which was constructed reusing stave building timbers dated to the early 12th c, and a well, constructed with reused barrels.
Later medieval activity was represented by chalk and ragstone foundations, cesspits, floor surfaces and hearths belonging to at least four major buildings. Individual timbers reused in the waterfronts included a corbelled post from a major aisled building, unique of its kind for being securely dated to the 10th c, a steering oar from a longship of Viking type, dated by dendrochronology to the late 10th-early 11th c, large fragments of clinker boat planking, dated by dendrochronology to the mid 11th c, and the earliest recorded example of 'see-sawn' planking, with a felling date of just after AD 1200.
Anaerobic conditions permitted good preservation of metalwork. Among Roman objects are two lead curses. Well-preserved medieval copper alloy objects include elaborate buckles and scabbard chapes of types not found before in London. Medieval lead objects include numerous cloth seals, pilgrim badges and ampullae, and fragments of mirror cases. Most of the latter are from Canterbury but some are French, including one from St Jean d'Angely. Also of interest are three badges in the form of a tau cross, dedicated to St Anthony.
Good assemblages of Roman, Saxon and medieval pottery were recovered. The medieval wine trade is evidenced by such types as 11th and 12th c Rhenish red-painted ware and Andenne ware, and 14th-15th c Saintonge ware from Gascony. A fragment of a rare wine glass and of a glass flask, both probably Italian and of 13th-14th c date, were found in the backfill of a chalk-lined cesspit, with fragments of three wooden bowls, a wooden container with painted decoration, a gold ring and 14th-15th c pottery.

Cutlers' Hall, Warwick Lane TQ 3186 8134 (Sarah Gibson, Richard Sermon) CTL90.
Post-medieval dumps and truncated pits were recorded during refurbishment of the Hall. The watching brief was conducted by arrangement with the Worshipful Company of Cutlers.

LAARC Archive

35–37 Cock Lane, EC1 TQ 31710 81030 (Sarah Gibson) COC91
Engineer’s testpits and one borehole were examined. Natural gravels were generally truncated but some medieval chalk footings survived in one of the testpits.

City wall at Barbican Waterside and next to Bastion House, London Wall, EC2 TQ 31850 81220 (G Porter and D Sankey )CTW91
Roman, medieval and post-medieval work of Bastions 12 and 14 and a straight stretch of wall W of Cripplegate was identified and recorded for the Corporation of London, including Roman fabric newly identified in the last stretch (numbered W40A, in accordance with the gazetteer of Roman sites in R Merrifield’s The Roman City of London, 1965). This Roman fabric is interpreted as part of the N wall of the fort, ascribed to the early 2nd c, and possible modifications to its outer face, perhaps when this wall was incorporated in the defensive wall around the city in c AD 200, but no thickening on the inner face of the fort wall was evident. The base of B12 and most of B11A, which project into an ornamental lake, were apparently wholly rebuilt during landscaping in the late 1960s and early 1970s for the Barbican development.

Equitable House, 47–51 King William Street, EC4 TQ 32880 80800 (Sarah Gibson and D Sankey) ETL91
Three test-pits were monitored in 1991. In the S of the site a possible Roman masonry wall was located; in the N of the site a post-medieval well cut into the natural. The site was later excavated by MoLAS, using the same sitecode.

Niblett Buildings, King’s Bench Walk, Inner Temple, EC4 TQ 31330 81070 (P Askew) NIB91
Recording here was funded by the Honourable Society of the Inner Temple. Three Roman burials were recorded, truncated by Roman or Saxon pits. An 18th/19th c cellar may have been part of Serjeants’ Inn, Fleet Street, which lay N of the site.

5–6 Pump Court, EC4 TQ 31180 81030 (N Elsden) PUM91
Six testpits were observed. Modern layers and pits had cut into natural gravels

25–26 Savage Gardens, EC3 TQ 33505 80884 (Sarah Gibson) SEN91
Test-pits were observed. Spongy wet dumps, possibly the infill of a stream valley, were succeeded by medieval walls which might be part of the buildings of the Crutched Friars.

58–59 West Smithfield, EC1 TQ 31910 81680 (L Howe) SMT91
This site lies in the NW corner of the precinct of St Bartholomew’s priory. The site was truncated down to the natural gravels though one of three testpits examined showed a deep cut feature (undated).

41–53 Threadneedle Street, 1–17 Old Broad Street, EC2 TQ 32960 81250 (Sarah Gibson) TEE91
An evaluation here was funded by National Westminster Estates plc. In the SE corner of the site cut features and redeposited brickearth slabs probably of Roman date were recorded above natural. Pits probably of medieval date and post-medieval structures were also recorded.